Evaluation of the prevalence of temporomandibular joint dysfunction in psychiatric patients
The aim of this study was to identify and classify temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) in psychiatric patients using typical anti- psychotics compared with healthy individuals, both physically and mentally.
Materials and methods: The present study had a descriptive cross-sectional design, developed over a 6-month period, at the Teaching Assistant Nucleus of Dentistry and Mental Health affiliated with the Juliano Moreira Psychiatric Hospital, Salvador, Brazil, and the Federal University of Bahia School of Dentistry, Salvador, Brazil. To that end, 120 patients aged 18 years or older, 40 psychiatric patients (20 women and 20 men), all using typical or first-generation antipsychotics of the pharmacological groups of butyrophenones and phenothiazines, and 80 mentally healthy patients (40 women and 40 men), underwent assessment of TMJD severity through an Anamnestic Index.
Results: There were statistically significant differences in the prevalence of TMJD in the group of patients with mental illness. Among the 40 individuals with mental and behavioral disorders, moderate TMJD was the most prevalent (16/40.0%), but in the control group, there was a higher prevalence of mild TMJD (34/42.5%). Two cases of severe TMJD were diagnosed in psychiatric patients.
Conclusion: In this study, it was possible to identify the prevalence and incidence of TMJD among those with mental and behavioral disorders using typical antipsychotic drugs, justifying the importance of their monitoring for TMJD. However, owing to its subjective nature, these patients should be referred for a specialized examination to confirm the diagnosis of TMJD.
Editorial note: The full article was published in the 2/2018 issue of the Journal of Oral Science and Rehabilitation.